April 4, 2020

RAADS–R

Last updated on August 18, 2022

The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale–Revised (RAADS–R) is a self-report questionnaire designed to identify adult autistics who “escape diagnosis” due to a subclinical level presentation.

Basic information
Statements:80
Duration:10–30 minutes
Type:screening tool
Authors:Riva Ariella Ritvo et al.
Publishing year:2011
Seminal paper:The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS–R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults: An International Validation Study (Ritvo et al., 2011)

Original RAADS
Statements:78
Publishing year:2008
Seminal paper:A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger’s Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study (Ritvo et al., 2008)

Take the test here:


Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht’s rating: 2 stars for appropriate and respectful wording, 1 stars for clarity & lack of ambiguity, and 4 stars for testing accuracy.
*The test has good reliability when self-administered, but this can drop down to 30% when clinicians administer it, depending on their understanding of autism.

Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht’s rating: 2 stars for appropriate and respectful wording, 1 stars for clarity & lack of ambiguity, and 4 stars for testing accuracy.


Who the test is designed for


Versions & translations

The RAADS–R has been translated into Swedish, and was also available in most languages through Google Translate. But as of 13 January 2022, it seems the online RAADS–R tests have been taken down. As far as we know, we are currently the only ones who host the RAADS–R online, albeit in English only.


Taking the test

The RAADS–R is a self-report instrument. However, the authors mention that a clinician might help a participant interpret items if they have difficulty understanding the question.

The test assesses developmental symptoms correlating with the three DSM-5 diagnostic categories (Language, Social relatedness, Sensory–motor) as well as a fourth subscale, Circumscribed interests. It consists of 80 statements, giving you 4 choices for each statement:

  • True now and when I was young
  • True now only
  • True only when I was younger than 16
  • Never true

If you decide to take the test, please consider the Discussion section below.


Scoring

Basics

  • Scoring range: 0–240
  • Threshold score: 65↑
  • 65+ you are likely autistic (no neurotypical scored above 64 in the research)
  • <65 you are likely not autistic (97% chance of not being autistic)

Scoring methods

You can take the test using two methods:

Scoring

The scoring of most of the statements (63) is as follows:

  • True now and when I was young (3 points)
  • True now only (2 points)
  • True only when I was younger than 16 (1 point)
  • Never true (0 points)

However, the point value is reversed for the 17 so-called normative questions:[2]The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS–R): A scale to assist the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults: An international validation study (Ritvo et al., 2011)

  • True now and when I was young (0 points)
  • True now only (1 point)
  • True only when I was younger than 16 (2 points)
  • Never true (3 points)

Below you can see an example of the first 3 questions, the first of which (denoted by an asterisk) is normative and thus has reversed scoring.

Example questions of the RAADS-R (‘I am a sympathetic person’, ‘I often use words and phrases from movies and television in conversations’, ‘I am often surprised when others tell me I have been rude’).


Subscales

Language

The language subscale is made up of 7 statements. The focus of these statements is on:

  • Movie talk: Friends notice you’ve heard something new because you start using the word or phrase regularly.
  • Small talk: A light conversation about unimportant things that people make during social interactions—instead of topics that are actually interesting and fun to talk about.
  • Being literal: Having challenges when ‘what is said’ language does not match ‘what is meant’ language.

Social relatedness

The social relatedness subscale is made up of 39 statements. The focus of these statements is on:

  • Mentalization: Challenges with understanding what others are thinking or feeling.
  • Mutual interests: Preferring to be with people with whom you share interests.
  • Outsider: Being considered ‘different’.
  • Bluntness: Being called rude; or that you have asked embarrassing questions; or pointed out when others have made an error.
  • Dialectical reciprocity: Challenges knowing when it is your turn to talk, in a conversation or on the phone.
  • Emotional reciprocity: Difficulty knowing when a person is flirting with you.
  • Auditory processing issues: Challenges talking with several people at the same time.
  • Object permanence: Not missing people when they’re absent.
  • Maintaining relationships: Challenges making or keeping friends.
  • Nonverbal communication: Challenges understanding body language.
  • Mimicry/imitation: Copying others’ behaviour to fit in.
  • Camouflaging: Hiding your automatic behaviours to fit in with others.

Sensory–motor

The sensory–motor subscale is made up of 20 statements. The focus of these statements is on:

  • Voice volume challenges: Talking very loud, not loud enough, or significant fluctuations between the two.
  • Voice differences: Speaking monotone, like a child, or in silly voices.
  • Motor control issues: Clumsiness and being uncoordinated.
  • Sensory: Sensory stimulation that doesn’t bother others can be painful and overwhelming. The experience can differ significantly at various times or be context-dependent. You may get anxious when overstimulated.

Circumscribed interests

The circumscribed interests subscale is made up of 14 statements. The focus of these statements is on:

  • Details preference: focuses on details before the big picture, but can do both.
  • Upset when the unexpected occurs: A dislike of someone changing your routine—this does not mean that you stick to your own routine, just that you dislike someone else changing YOUR routine.
  • Special interests: Speaking about them, having them…

Average scores

The table below shows the average total scores and subscores for people taking the RAADS-R online, divided by autistic people, suspected autistic people, and non-autistic people (neurotypicals).

Average RAADS-R scores
 Total scoreLanguageSocial
relatedness
Sensory/
motor
Circumscr.
interests
Autism threshold
values
65.04.031.016.015.0
Autistic males148.611.971.336.728.7
Autistic females160.412.873.543.131.0
Suspected autistic
males
141.611.270.033.327.2
Suspected autistic
females
145.211.367.238.728.0
Neurotypical males84.26.643.019.015.7
Neurotypical females91.66.842.824.817.2

You might ask, “If the threshold score is 65, and no neurotypicals scored higher than 64 in the research, then why are the average neurotypical scores above 80?” Excellent question!

The answer is in how the data is being collected. The table above is based on people taking the RAADS–R online, which for research purposes starts with the question as to whether you are diagnosed with autism, suspect you’re autistic, or are not autistic. But some people that answered the latter will—contrary to their own expectations—end up scoring in the autistic range. Due to this misattribution, their scores get counted as neurotypical scores despite scoring in the autistic range, thus skewing the results.

In other words, the average neurotypical scores as reported by the online RAADS–R (on Aspietests.org) are almost certainly too high. The average scores you can find in the research literature are more reliable, given that they use genuine neurotypicals as a control group. In the article below, you can find a table with average scores that I have taken from the research literature.

A summary of the autism tests & scores

Mean scores

Because the table with average scores is based on skewed data, let me also present the mean scores from Ritvo’s seminal paper:[3]The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS–R): A scale to assist the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults: An international validation study (Ritvo et al., 2011)

Mean RAADS–R scores
 Mean totalRangeLanguageSocial
relatedness
Sensory/
motor
Circumscr.
interests
Autistic spectrum (n = 66)133.8344–22711.0867.8932.8228.11
Asperger (n = 135)10.0665.0728.9627.44
Controls (n = 276)25.950–651.869.245.265.03

Validity

The RAADS–R is a reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of autistic adults.[4]The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS–R): A scale to assist the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults: An international validation study (Ritvo et al., 2011)

Here is how the RAADS–R measures up:

RAADS-R validity
MeasureResultMeaning
Sensitivity97%Test’s ability to identify positive results
Specificity100%Test’s ability to identify negative results
Concurrent validity96%Test’s validity compared with ADOS Module 4, SRS
Test–retest reliability.987Test’s agreement between results of successive measurements

A total RAADS–R score of 65 or higher is consistent with the diagnosis of autism and supports a clinician’s diagnosis. However, if there is a difference between the clinician’s diagnosis and the RAADS–R diagnostic assignment, the clinician’s diagnosis should take precedent. This is because symptoms may be revealed only during an interview.

Also, the RAADS–R standardization study reported that many autism subjects, particularly those in their late teens and early twenties, failed to acknowledge the presence of symptoms that their families said were present and which were readily observed by the diagnostician.[6]The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS–R)


Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht pointing to the title ‘Discussion’.

Discussion

Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht:

The test has been validated and cited in the medical literature numerous times. However, as both an autistic and a psychotherapist, I have some concerns with the RAADS–R:

  • Quite a few of the statements are not actually characteristic of autism and are likely going to be experienced as demeaning (e.g. I am NEVER a compassionate type of person).
  • A few questions are characteristic of alexithymia rather than autism (e.g. the ones on lack of compassion and empathy). While alexithymia correlates strongly with autism, it should not be confused with autism itself.
  • Two-thirds of autistic adults were incorrectly identified by clinicians when they used this test, despite the fact that the test has strong validity.[7]Examining the Diagnostic Validity of Autism Measures Among Adults in an Outpatient Clinic Sample (Conner, Cramer, & McGonigle, 2019) I suspect the reason for this is that the normative questions that indicate what we ought to be like are outdated. I contacted Dr. Ritvo regarding this, but she has declined to respond.

My RAADS-R test results, indicating a total score of 178.

My test results are above. And it did identify me as autistic, which I am. The test is based on the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism[8]Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder | CDC which views us as having deficits, deficits, deficits!

I find many of the questions insensitive and lacking in understanding about what is normative in regards to autistics. The test claims that a clinician ‘ought’ to see the following characteristics if a person is autistic:

  • A lack of compassion
  • A dislike of close friendships
  • Monotonous speech
  • An inability to manage small talk.

Of the 80 statements in the RAADS–R, the following 17 are normative. And remember, according to the RAADS–R, ‘never true’ gives the highest score (3) for these statements. Statements that are unlikely to be ‘never true’ for most autistic people, are in bold.

  • 1. I am a sympathetic person
  • 6. I can “put myself in other people’s shoes”
  • 11. I miss my best friends or family when we are apart for a long time.
  • 18. I understand when friends need to be comforted.
  • 23. Meeting new people is usually easy for me.
  • 26. I like having a conversation with several people, for instance around a dinner table, at school, or at work.
  • 33. I speak with a normal rhythm.
  • 37. I am an understanding type of person.
  • 43. I like to talk things over with my friends.
  • 47. I feel very comfortable dating or being in social situations with others.
  • 48. I try to be as helpful as I can when other people tell me their personal problems.
  • 53. I am considered a compassionate type of person.
  • 58. I can chat and make small talk with people.
  • 62. I usually speak in a normal tone.
  • 68. I can tell when someone says one thing but means something else.
  • 72. I enjoy spending time eating and talking with my family and friends.
  • 77. I like to have close friends.

These descriptions are so lacking in nuance and are not at all representative of who I am. This is probably my least favourite autism test for that reason alone.

Kendall:

A significant percentage of the statements are nearly impossible for me to answer or, have no appropriate answer. It feels like throwing a dart at times; no choice is accurate, just slightly more or less accurate.

That said, the test has a close to 100% success rate in differentiating autism from non-autism, despite these limitations.


Dr. Natalie Engelbrecht pointing at a psychometric test.

The RAADS–R

Please read each statement below and choose the answer that best fits your experiences during social interactions.

1. I am a sympathetic person.
2. I often use words and phrases from movies and television in conversations.
3. I am often surprised when others tell me I have been rude.
4. Sometimes I talk too loudly or too softly, and I am not aware of it.
5. I often don't know how to act in social situations.
6. I can 'put myself in other people's shoes.'
7. I have a hard time figuring out what some phrases mean, like 'you are the apple of my eye.'
8. I only like to talk to people who share my special interests.
9. I focus on details rather than the overall idea.
10. I always notice how food feels in my mouth. This is more important to me than how it tastes.
11. I miss my best friends or family when we are apart for a long time.
12. Sometimes I offend others by saying what I am thinking, even if I don't mean to.
13. I only like to think and talk about a few things that interest me.
14. I'd rather go out to eat in a restaurant by myself than with someone I know.
15. I cannot imagine what it would be like to be someone else.
16. I have been told that I am clumsy or uncoordinated.
17. Others consider me odd or different.
18. I understand when friends need to be comforted.
19. I am very sensitive to the way my clothes feel when I touch them. How they feel is more important to me than how they look.
20. I like to copy the way certain people speak and act. It helps me appear more normal.
21. It can be very intimidating for me to talk to more than one person at the same time.
22. I have to 'act normal' to please other people and make them like me.
23. Meeting new people is usually easy for me.
24. I get highly confused when someone interrupts me when I am talking about something I am very interested in.
25. It is difficult for me to understand how other people are feeling when we are talking.
26. I like having a conversation with several people, for instance around a dinner table, at school or at work.
27. I take things too literally, so I often miss what people are trying to say.
28. It is very difficult for me to understand when someone is embarrassed or jealous.
29. Some ordinary textures that do not bother others feel very offensive when they touch my skin.
30. I get extremely upset when the way I like to do things is suddenly changed.
31. I have never wanted or needed to have what other people call an 'intimate relationship.'
32. It is difficult for me to start and stop a conversation. I need to keep going until I am finished.
33. I speak with a normal rhythm.
34. The same sound, color or texture can suddenly change from very sensitive to very dull.
35. The phrase 'I've got you under my skin' makes me uncomfortable.
36. Sometimes the sound of a word or a high-pitched noise can be painful to my ears.
37. I am an understanding type of person.
38. I do not connect with characters in movies and cannot feel what they feel.
39. I cannot tell when someone is flirting with me.
40. I can see in my mind in exact detail things that I am interested in.
41. I keep lists of things that interest me, even when they have no practical use (for example sports statistics, train schedules, calendar dates, historical facts and dates).
42. When I feel overwhelmed by my senses, I have to isolate myself to shut them down.
43. I like to talk things over with my friends.
44. I cannot tell if someone is interested or bored with what I am saying.
45. It can be very hard to read someone's face, hand and body movements when they are talking.
46. The same thing (like clothes or temperatures) can feel very different to me at different times.
47. I feel very comfortable with dating or being in social situations with others.
48. I try to be as helpful as I can when other people tell me their personal problems.
49. I have been told that I have an unusual voice (for example flat, monotone, childish, or high-pitched).
50. Sometimes a thought or a subject gets stuck in my mind and I have to talk about it even if no one is interested.
51. I do certain things with my hands over and over again (like flapping, twirling sticks or strings, waving things by my eyes).
52. I have never been interested in what most of the people I know consider interesting.
53. I am considered a compassionate type of person.
54. I get along with other people by following a set of specific rules that help me look normal.
55. It is very difficult for me to work and function in groups.
56. When I am talking to someone, it is hard to change the subject. If the other person does so, I can get very upset and confused.
57. Sometimes I have to cover my ears to block out painful noises (like vacuum cleaners or people talking too much or too loudly).
58. I can chat and make small talk with people.
59. Sometimes things that should feel painful are not (for instance when I hurt myself or burn my hand on the stove).
60. When talking to someone, I have a hard time telling when it is my turn to talk or to listen.
61. I am considered a loner by those who know me best.
62. I usually speak in a normal tone.
63. I like things to be exactly the same day after day and even small changes in my routines upset me.
64. How to make friends and socialize is a mystery to me.
65. It calms me to spin around or to rock in a chair when I'm feeling stressed.
66. The phrase, 'He wears his heart on his sleeve,' does not make sense to me.
67. If I am in a place where there are many smells, textures to feel, noises or bright lights, I feel anxious or frightened.
68. I can tell when someone says one thing but means something else.
69. I like to be by myself as much as I can.
70. I keep my thoughts stacked in my memory like they are on filing cards, and I pick out the ones I need by looking through the stack and finding the right one (or another unique way).
71. The same sound sometimes seems very loud or very soft, even though I know it has not changed.
72. I enjoy spending time eating and talking with my family and friends.
73. I can't tolerate things I dislike (like smells, textures, sounds or colors).
74. I don't like to be hugged or held.
75. When I go somewhere, I have to follow a familiar route or I can get very confused and upset.
76. It is difficult to figure out what other people expect of me.
77. I like to have close friends.
78. People tell me that I give too much detail.
79. I am often told that I ask embarrassing questions.
80. I tend to point out other people's mistakes.


What do my scores mean?

All scores of 65 or higher are indicative of autistic traits. The higher the score, the more autistic traits you have. In the table below are general interpretations of various total scores on the RAADS–R.

Meaning of RAADS–R scores
ScoreInterpretation
25You are not autistic.
50Some autistic traits, but likely not autistic (yet some autistic people score as low as 44.
65The minimum score at which autism is considered.
90Stronger indications of autism, although non-autistics may score as high.
130The mean score of autistic people; strong evidence for autism.
160Very strong evidence for autism.
227The maximum score autistic people acquired in Ritvo’s seminal paper on the RAADS–R.[9]The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults: An International Validation Study (Ritvo et al., 2011)

Do note that no single test is conclusive, and not every autistic person necessarily scores above the defined threshold on each test. If you score low on the RAADS–R but still think you could be autistic, try taking a few other autism tests.


Statements per subscales

Below you can see which statements of the RAADS–R belong to which of the subscales. Double-click or tap on a subscale to see all statements for that subscale grouped together.

Statements per subscales
StatementSocial
relatedness
LanguageSensory/
motor
Circumscribed
interests
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

Recommended next steps

After the RAADS–R, consider taking one of the tests below.

Autism Spectrum Quotient

A simple screening test that is used as a basis
for pursuing a formal autism evaluation

CAT-Q

Measures camouflaging, and can account
for lower scores on other autism tests

Aspie Quiz

Identifies neurodivergence and
potential co-occurring conditions

Online autism tests can play an essential role in the process of self-discovery, and may inform your decision to pursue a formal diagnosis. For a formal assessment, please see a knowledgeable medical professional trained in assessing autism.


An illustration of a clipboard with a checklist or assessment.

If you are looking for an autism assessment,
have a look at the following post:

Online autism assessments
This article
was written by:
dr-natalie-engelbrecht
I’m a dually licensed registered psychotherapist and naturopathic doctor, and a Canadian leader in trauma, PTSD, and integrative medicine strictly informed by scientific research.And not only do I happen to be autistic, but my autism plays a significant role in who I am as a doctor and how I interact with and care for my patients and clients.

Disclaimer

Although our content is generally well-researched
and substantiated, or based on personal experience,
note that it does not constitute medical advice.

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